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Combustion

Definition

Combustion is a process in which heat and light is produced, by the rapid chemical reaction between oxygen and other substances or fuels such as wood, oil, coal, petroleum etc., 

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  • Boiler

    Definition

    Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other types of fluids is heated as a result vapour or steam is generated which helps to run turbines or engines and also heat produced is used for various other purposes. The sources of heat for the boiles is combustion of different fuels such as coal, natural gas, wood or other types of fuels.

  • Steam locomotive

    Definition

    Steam locomotive is moved by using the power of steam which is generated in its own boiler by the combustion of fuels such as coal, oil or petroleum. Steam locomotives are also used to move trains along railway tracks for railway transport.

  • Coal

    Definition

    Coal is considered to be a fossil fuel which is dark black to brownish in color, rock formed from plants that have been fossilized through the process of oxidation. Coal contains amorphous carbon along with different organic as well some inorganic compounds and liberates carbon dioxide and other harmful gases when burned. Coal is widely used to generate electricity as well as heat.

  • Effectiveness of Inorganic Coal

    Mineral coal is used in producing steam power to drive railway trains, Steam-ships and Steamers.

    Steam-power is produced from water boiled by mineral coal. Electricity is easily manufactured from coal by planting thermal stations near coal mines.

    Synthetic petrol is manufactured from mineral; coal through a kind of chemical process.

  • Fly ash

    Definition

    Fly Ash are the fine particles or the residues which are generated during combustion of solid fuels such as coal. It is also known as "pulverised fuel ash". Along with the flue gases these fine particles  are driven out of the boiler. The components of fly ash vary and depends on the coal being burned.

  • How is Coal Formed ?

    Since the 13th century coal is derived from the Old English term col, which means "mineral of fossilized carbon".

    Coal consists of high content of carbon and other elements like, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

    Coal is a naturally black sedimentary rock occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

    Anthracite coal is the solider form of coal, can be considered as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to high temperature and pressure.

  • What is Coal ?

    Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock composed generally of carbon and hydrocarbons.

    Coal is non-renewable resource which is the most abundant manufactured fossil fuel in the United States.

    Coal is the leading source of energy for the generation of electricity all over the world, also anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases.

    Coal act as abundant resource that has been used for thousands of years to yield energy, mutually in the form of heat and electricity.

  • Steam engine

    Definition

    Steam engine is a heat engine in which a hot steam is used that converts the heat energy into mechanical energy. Sliding piston is present in the cylinder which moves by the expansion action of the steam which is generated in a boiler. Coal, wood or other combustible material are used as a source to produce steam in a boiler.

  • What is Coal Tar ?

    Coal tar is a black fluid of tremendously high viscosity when coal is carbonized,

    Coal tar is among the by-products which manufactured coke or gasified to make coal gas.

    Coal tars are compound and variable mixtures of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds.

    Paracetamol is the only coal-tar derived analgesic which is still in use today, but industrial phenol is now usually synthesized from crude oil rather than coal tar.

  • Process Validation stages continued process verification

    Third stages in Process Validation is Continued Process Verification, Some points in process validation during continued process verification are as follows, So let us see one by one all the points:

    The main goal of continued process verification in process validation is to ensure that the process remains in a state of control during manufacturing of commercial products.

    The data is collected and evaluated in order to determine process variability.

  • Process Validation Stages process qualification

    During Process validation: The second stage is process qualification Some of the points which are discussed during process qualification are as follows , so let us check it out points one by one.:

    The main aim of process qualification is to determine whether the process which is designed is capable of reproducible commercial manufacture or not.

    Design of the utility and the qualification of the equipment are taken into account during process qualification.

    Process performance qualification in this stage.

  • Process Validation Stages process design

    In Process Validation the first stage out of three stages is Process Design. Following are some of the points which are taken into consideration during process design. So let us check it out one by one:

    To design process follow good manufacturing practices.

    Uses scientific principles as well as scientific methods.

    Conduct the internal review , the document decisions and the justification of the controls.

    Find out critical quality attributes during process design.

    Critical material attributes are defined.

  • Process Validation stages continued process verification one

    About Process Validation, the third stage is continued process verification, Some more information about process validation in continued process verification are as follows:

    The variation in the continued process verification can be detected by assessment of various documents.

    By complaints of any defects.

    By checking out of specification records or process parameters.

    Checking deviation reports.

    By observing variation in the process yield.

    By checking batch records.

    Checking records of incoming materials.

  • Process Validation Stages process design two

    In Process validation the first stage that is Process design stage have some points which are taken into account. Some of them which are taken into consideration are as follows:

    Process control should address variability such as:

    During the process design the control to reduce the input variation and the control to adjust for input variation are taken into account during manufacturing.

    Controls may also consist of about the equipment monitoring at significant processing point and also control on material analysis.

  • Process Validation Stages process design one

    In Process Validation as we know that first stage is process design, Some of the points which are discussed during the process design are as follows , so let us check it out one by one.

    Use Design of experiment (DOE) to develop the process by different factors such as :

    By Revealing relationship between the various variable inputs such as characteristics of components or process parameters  and between the resulting outputs such as process material, intermediate or the final product.

  • Types of Coal

    Coal is a multifaceted resource which differs in composition even inside the same deposit. There are four different types or ranking based on various levels of coal with differences in energy output as a result of increased temperature,pressure & time

    Lignite is a brownish-black coal with great moisture and ash content and the lowest heating value of the four types of coal. It is used for generating electricity.

  • Process Validation Stages process qualification report excution

    In Process Validation the execution of process qualification begins after the approval of the protocol, Following are some of the points regarding execution and preparation of report during process qualification.

    Execution will start of begins after the approval of the protocol.

    All points mentioned in the protocol are to be followed.

    If the points mentioned in protocol is not followed then proper justification is required.

    Follow the commercial manufacturing process and the routine procedures.

  • Process Validation Stages process qualification two

    In the Process Validation during second stage that is process qualification some more points are taken into account which are  discussed below. So let us see some points one by one:

    During process performance qualification the actual facilities, utilities and equipment are checked whether they are qualified or not.

    The personnel operating various equipment are trained or not is checked.

    The  procedure which are performed are as per standard procedure is verified and checked.

  • Definition of Debentures

    Check out Definition of Debentures discussed below. So let us find out some related points on definition to know more about debentures.

    Debentures Definition :

    Debenture is a certificate of a loan, loan bond or a written acknowledgement of indebtedness by the comapany setting out the terms and conditions of the loan

    During debenture period a company may raise loan by issue a debenture or debenture stock.

  • Process Validation Stages process qualification protocol

    During Process Validation the protocol of process qualification is also prepared, following are some of the points which are included into protocol of process qualification, so let us check it out some points:

    The manufacturing condition including processing limits, the operating parameters as well as the components used such as raw materials are included in protocol.

    The sampling plan with complete details of the number of sampling points, frequency of sampling of each unit are to be mentioned in protocol.

  • Definition of polymers

    Definition - Polymers are large molecules which are made of repeating units of molecules which are called as monomers.

    There are lots of applications of polymers in day to day life.

    The term polymer is derived from the greek work , In Greek terminology poly means many and meros means parts.

    To form polymers, the monomers are connected to each other with the help of covalent bonds and this process is called polymerization.

    Polymers is made up of either same type of monomer or different types of monomers.

  • Process Validation Stages process qualification one

    In Process Validation the second stage that is process qualification , the design of the facilities and the qualification of the equipment and the qualification of the utilities are very important. Some of the points regarding design and qualification are as follows:

    During the qualification of th utilities and the equipment, the construction materials, the operating principle and the performance characteristics are very important.

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Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase extraction

Solid phase extraction:Let us discuss advantages and disadvantages of solid phase extraction. Some of them are discussed below so let us check it out one by one.

Advantages:

No emulsion problems observed.

Cost is low

Accuracy is greater

Glass breakage minimal

Lower solvent consumption

Reagent consumption lower

No cross contamination

Less sample handling

Process in fewer steps

Disadvantages:

Incomplete removal of the interferences

What are the uses of LPG ?

Some of the uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are as follows. So let us check it out some information on LPG to know more about LPG.

  1. LPG can be used as a fuel in motor vehicles.
  2. LPG can also be used as refrigerant.
  3. LPG is also used in agriculture purposes if various drying processes.
  4. In industry lpg is widely used for heating purposes.
  5. It is also used for domestic purposes for cooking food.

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LIMS to NCE terms

The List of Abbreviations used in Pharmaceutical Industry

Check out more information of related terms

Again in the seventh chapter of the list of abbreviations used in pharmaceutical industry you will get some of the important terms used daily in pharma industry.

Full Form of CNC,GPRS

Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) are an automatic digital computers which are used to control machines.(Other full form of CNC and meaning are also available) So check it out other articles related to the given term.

GPRS : General Packet Radio Service (Packet oriented mobile data service for mobile communication).

Advantages and disadvantages of Chromatography

Chromatography is simple method. Chromatography can be handled by single person.

Other advantages are, Chromatography is used to separate components from complex mixture.

Different types of chromatography equipment are available for separation of different compounds.

Some of them are Gas Chromatography, Liquid Chromatography, Solid Chromatography, High performance liquid Chromatography, Solid liquid Chromatography, Liquid liquid Chromatography, Thin layer Chromatography. This method gives accurate results.