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Combustion

Definition

Combustion is a process in which heat and light is produced, by the rapid chemical reaction between oxygen and other substances or fuels such as wood, oil, coal, petroleum etc., 

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Boiler

Definition

Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other types of fluids is heated as a result vapour or steam is generated which helps to run turbines or engines and also heat produced is used for various other purposes. The sources of heat for the boiles is combustion of different fuels such as coal, natural gas, wood or other types of fuels.

Coal

Definition

Coal is considered to be a fossil fuel which is dark black to brownish in color, rock formed from plants that have been fossilized through the process of oxidation. Coal contains amorphous carbon along with different organic as well some inorganic compounds and liberates carbon dioxide and other harmful gases when burned. Coal is widely used to generate electricity as well as heat.

Steam locomotive

Definition

Steam locomotive is moved by using the power of steam which is generated in its own boiler by the combustion of fuels such as coal, oil or petroleum. Steam locomotives are also used to move trains along railway tracks for railway transport.

Effectiveness of Inorganic Coal

Mineral coal is used in producing steam power to drive railway trains, Steam-ships and Steamers.

Steam-power is produced from water boiled by mineral coal. Electricity is easily manufactured from coal by planting thermal stations near coal mines.

Synthetic petrol is manufactured from mineral; coal through a kind of chemical process.

Fly ash

Definition

Fly Ash are the fine particles or the residues which are generated during combustion of solid fuels such as coal. It is also known as "pulverised fuel ash". Along with the flue gases these fine particles  are driven out of the boiler. The components of fly ash vary and depends on the coal being burned.

How is Coal Formed ?

Since the 13th century coal is derived from the Old English term col, which means "mineral of fossilized carbon".

Coal consists of high content of carbon and other elements like, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

Coal is a naturally black sedimentary rock occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

Anthracite coal is the solider form of coal, can be considered as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to high temperature and pressure.

What is Coal ?

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock composed generally of carbon and hydrocarbons.

Coal is non-renewable resource which is the most abundant manufactured fossil fuel in the United States.

Coal is the leading source of energy for the generation of electricity all over the world, also anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases.

Coal act as abundant resource that has been used for thousands of years to yield energy, mutually in the form of heat and electricity.

Steam engine

Definition

Steam engine is a heat engine in which a hot steam is used that converts the heat energy into mechanical energy. Sliding piston is present in the cylinder which moves by the expansion action of the steam which is generated in a boiler. Coal, wood or other combustible material are used as a source to produce steam in a boiler.

What is Coal Tar ?

Coal tar is a black fluid of tremendously high viscosity when coal is carbonized,

Coal tar is among the by-products which manufactured coke or gasified to make coal gas.

Coal tars are compound and variable mixtures of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds.

Paracetamol is the only coal-tar derived analgesic which is still in use today, but industrial phenol is now usually synthesized from crude oil rather than coal tar.

Process Validation stages continued process verification

Third stages in Process Validation is Continued Process Verification, Some points in process validation during continued process verification are as follows, So let us see one by one all the points:

The main goal of continued process verification in process validation is to ensure that the process remains in a state of control during manufacturing of commercial products.

The data is collected and evaluated in order to determine process variability.

Process Validation Stages process qualification

During Process validation: The second stage is process qualification Some of the points which are discussed during process qualification are as follows , so let us check it out points one by one.:

The main aim of process qualification is to determine whether the process which is designed is capable of reproducible commercial manufacture or not.

Design of the utility and the qualification of the equipment are taken into account during process qualification.

Process performance qualification in this stage.

Process Validation Stages process design

In Process Validation the first stage out of three stages is Process Design. Following are some of the points which are taken into consideration during process design. So let us check it out one by one:

To design process follow good manufacturing practices.

Uses scientific principles as well as scientific methods.

Conduct the internal review , the document decisions and the justification of the controls.

Find out critical quality attributes during process design.

Critical material attributes are defined.

Process Validation stages continued process verification one

About Process Validation, the third stage is continued process verification, Some more information about process validation in continued process verification are as follows:

The variation in the continued process verification can be detected by assessment of various documents.

By complaints of any defects.

By checking out of specification records or process parameters.

Checking deviation reports.

By observing variation in the process yield.

By checking batch records.

Checking records of incoming materials.

Process Validation Stages process design two

In Process validation the first stage that is Process design stage have some points which are taken into account. Some of them which are taken into consideration are as follows:

Process control should address variability such as:

During the process design the control to reduce the input variation and the control to adjust for input variation are taken into account during manufacturing.

Controls may also consist of about the equipment monitoring at significant processing point and also control on material analysis.