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Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other types of fluids is heated as a result vapour or steam is generated which helps to run turbines or engines and also heat produced is used for various other purposes. The sources of heat for the boiles is combustion of different fuels such as coal, natural gas, wood or other types of fuels.

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Steam engine


Steam engine is a heat engine in which a hot steam is used that converts the heat energy into mechanical energy. Sliding piston is present in the cylinder which moves by the expansion action of the steam which is generated in a boiler. Coal, wood or other combustible material are used as a source to produce steam in a boiler.

Steam locomotive


Steam locomotive is moved by using the power of steam which is generated in its own boiler by the combustion of fuels such as coal, oil or petroleum. Steam locomotives are also used to move trains along railway tracks for railway transport.



Combustion is a process in which heat and light is produced, by the rapid chemical reaction between oxygen and other substances or fuels such as wood, oil, coal, petroleum etc., 

Types of Coal

Coal is a multifaceted resource which differs in composition even inside the same deposit. There are four different types or ranking based on various levels of coal with differences in energy output as a result of increased temperature,pressure & time

Lignite is a brownish-black coal with great moisture and ash content and the lowest heating value of the four types of coal. It is used for generating electricity.

Fly ash


Fly Ash are the fine particles or the residues which are generated during combustion of solid fuels such as coal. It is also known as "pulverised fuel ash". Along with the flue gases these fine particles  are driven out of the boiler. The components of fly ash vary and depends on the coal being burned.

Effectiveness of Inorganic Coal

Mineral coal is used in producing steam power to drive railway trains, Steam-ships and Steamers.

Steam-power is produced from water boiled by mineral coal. Electricity is easily manufactured from coal by planting thermal stations near coal mines.

Synthetic petrol is manufactured from mineral; coal through a kind of chemical process.

Process Validation - Types

Process Validation points - Some types of process validation are as follows. So let us see types of the process validation one by one to know more about process validation.

Prospective process validation

Retrospective process validation

Concurrent process validation


Prospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the pre-planned protocol"

Retrospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the analysis and review of the historical data"

Types of chromatography

There are various different types of chromatography which are used today in different industries and in day to day life.

Before going into detail let us check it out the definition of the chromatography.

The chromatogaphy is the separation of a component from of complex mixture of substance.

Types of component, functional group or structure can be identified with the help of chromatography.

List of some of the equipment are as follows:

Gas chromatography

Liquid chromatography

Solid chromatography

Liquid-liquid chromatography

Different Types of Ants

There are Different Types of Ants present on the Earth, So let us check out some of the  information on various kinds of Ants to know more about it. An Ant is one type of insect, Ants are small animals (Insects) and they are likely to be found in an anthill. Ants are usually social insects and usually lives in a complex social colony with one or more breeding queens, ants are very strong.