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Definition of polymers

Definition - Polymers are large molecules which are made of repeating units of molecules which are called as monomers.

There are lots of applications of polymers in day to day life.

The term polymer is derived from the greek work , In Greek terminology poly means many and meros means parts.

To form polymers, the monomers are connected to each other with the help of covalent bonds and this process is called polymerization.

Polymers is made up of either same type of monomer or different types of monomers.

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Polymers applications in everyday life

Polymers have many applications in various fields as well as in everday life.

Let us check it out some uses of polymers.

 Polymers are used in clothing, oil recovery, food and flavours, agriculture, packaging, consumer items like clothing, toys, skin care

Polymers also used in automative parts, pipes, parts, additives etc.

Also used in electronics as well as in medicines such as in formulation of proteins, antibiotics, gel caps or in coating of tablets. 

Polymers applications in biomedical engineering

Polymers applications is also available in biomedical engineering.

The structure of polymers are used to determine the utilization of polymers is various medical fields such as surgery, ophthalmology,pharmacy, dermatology etc.

Preparations of popular thermoplastic polymers for biomaterials like teflon, nylon, PVC, polyolefin etc.,.

Popular thermosetting polymes like butyl rubber, natural rubber, silicon rubber etc.

Applications of polymers

Various applications of polymers are there for different industries which are very useful. Let us see some applications of polymers which are discussed as follows:

Polymers are used in packaging, surgical sutures,  bottles, electrical components, contact lenses, adhesives, medical supples such as blood bag, bone cement etc.

Used if plastic bags, pipes, rubber, fabrics, automative parts, paints, also used in houseware products such as plates, cups etc., 

Polymers nanofiber applications:

Polymers are used in

Biodegradable polymers

Biodegradable polymes are having wide range of applications in different fileds such as pharmacy, medicine , dermatology etc

.Let us check it out some of the biodegradable polymers.

Polymers obtained from biomass products are knows as  agropolymers such as polysaccharides, proteins, starch, ligno cellulose products etc.

Polymers obtained from microorganisms by extraction such as PolyHydroxy Alkanoats (PHA) .

Polymers additives

Polymers additives is one of the applications in polymers to improve the mechanal property, durability or processability.

Fillers such as carbon black or silica gel are added to polymers to improve tensile strength, abrasion resistance and toughness.

Plasticizers are added to reduce the glass transition temperature.

Stabilizers contain antioxidants and UV protectants.

Lubricants are added to allow easier processing.

Other additives like colorants and flame retardants are also added in polymers. 

Polymers properties

Polymers have many properties which is very important for different applications of various polymers in different fields.

Some of the propeties are:

(1) Electrical properties: Dielectric constant, leakage current, breakdown voltage, dielectric strength.

(2) Mechanical properties: Tensile strength, modules and elongation.

(3) Thermal properties: Themal stability, Tg, CTE, stress, thermal oxidative stability, Themal conductivity.

(4) Other properties: viscocity, water absorption, moisture permeability, adhesion, chemical resistance, surface finish. etc.

Supply Chain Management Definition, Advantages and Disadvantages

Definition of Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain management can be considered as an effective tool for improving business process. It starts with the source of supply and competes at the point of consumption. Supply chain management is a flow of information and materials from suppliers which involves number of value added process and different distribution channels to the customers. 

Supply chain management involves :

Process Validation - Types

Process Validation points - Some types of process validation are as follows. So let us see types of the process validation one by one to know more about process validation.

Prospective process validation

Retrospective process validation

Concurrent process validation

Revalidation

Prospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the pre-planned protocol"

Retrospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the analysis and review of the historical data"

Process Validation Types Revalidation

Fourth type of process validation is Revalidation. It is performed to check the performance of the various process parameters, some of the points regarding revalidation are as follows. So let us have a look on revalidation:

Any part of process or entire process parameters are validated in order to check the performance of the process parameters.

To maintain the validated status of equipment, facilities, or manufacturing process , revalidation if often carried out.

Process Validation Types Concurrent validation

Third type of process validation is concurrent validation which is also performed. Some of the points about concurrent validation are as follow , so let us see one by one:

Concurrent validation is performed based on the data which is generated at the time of production.

Validation carried out on the bases of the actual report generated during production.

Critical process parameters and the end products are monitored during concurrent validation.

The process parameter are checked for each and every ongoing batch.

Process Validation Types Retrospective validation

Retrospective validation is the second type of process validation, some of the points regarding the retrospective validation are given below , so let us check it out one by one:

Retrospective validation is the documented evidence in which the process validation is carried out based on the historical data.

Validation of facilities, process, or processes are carried out based on the available historical data or reports.

This type of approach is rarely used today.

Process Validation Types Prospective validation

Types of Process validation:Out of four types prospective validation is one of them. Some points regarding prospective validation are as follows , so let us check it out one by one:

In prospective validation process the validation is carried out based on the pre planned protocols.

Prospective validation is carried out at new process at new manufacturing facility.

Before pharmaceutical production at commercial level, prospective validation is carried out.

During prospective validation the input resources are clearly defined and specified.