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Definition of polymers

Definition - Polymers are large molecules which are made of repeating units of molecules which are called as monomers.

There are lots of applications of polymers in day to day life.

The term polymer is derived from the greek work , In Greek terminology poly means many and meros means parts.

To form polymers, the monomers are connected to each other with the help of covalent bonds and this process is called polymerization.

Polymers is made up of either same type of monomer or different types of monomers.

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  • Polymers applications in everyday life

    Polymers have many applications in various fields as well as in everday life.

    Let us check it out some uses of polymers.

     Polymers are used in clothing, oil recovery, food and flavours, agriculture, packaging, consumer items like clothing, toys, skin care

    Polymers also used in automative parts, pipes, parts, additives etc.

    Also used in electronics as well as in medicines such as in formulation of proteins, antibiotics, gel caps or in coating of tablets. 

  • Polymers applications in biomedical engineering

    Polymers applications is also available in biomedical engineering.

    The structure of polymers are used to determine the utilization of polymers is various medical fields such as surgery, ophthalmology,pharmacy, dermatology etc.

    Preparations of popular thermoplastic polymers for biomaterials like teflon, nylon, PVC, polyolefin etc.,.

    Popular thermosetting polymes like butyl rubber, natural rubber, silicon rubber etc.

  • Applications of polymers

    Various applications of polymers are there for different industries which are very useful. Let us see some applications of polymers which are discussed as follows:

    Polymers are used in packaging, surgical sutures,  bottles, electrical components, contact lenses, adhesives, medical supples such as blood bag, bone cement etc.

    Used if plastic bags, pipes, rubber, fabrics, automative parts, paints, also used in houseware products such as plates, cups etc., 

    Polymers nanofiber applications:

    Polymers are used in

  • Biodegradable polymers

    Biodegradable polymes are having wide range of applications in different fileds such as pharmacy, medicine , dermatology etc

    .Let us check it out some of the biodegradable polymers.

    Polymers obtained from biomass products are knows as  agropolymers such as polysaccharides, proteins, starch, ligno cellulose products etc.

    Polymers obtained from microorganisms by extraction such as PolyHydroxy Alkanoats (PHA) .

  • Polymers additives

    Polymers additives is one of the applications in polymers to improve the mechanal property, durability or processability.

    Fillers such as carbon black or silica gel are added to polymers to improve tensile strength, abrasion resistance and toughness.

    Plasticizers are added to reduce the glass transition temperature.

    Stabilizers contain antioxidants and UV protectants.

    Lubricants are added to allow easier processing.

    Other additives like colorants and flame retardants are also added in polymers. 

  • Polymers properties

    Polymers have many properties which is very important for different applications of various polymers in different fields.

    Some of the propeties are:

    (1) Electrical properties: Dielectric constant, leakage current, breakdown voltage, dielectric strength.

    (2) Mechanical properties: Tensile strength, modules and elongation.

    (3) Thermal properties: Themal stability, Tg, CTE, stress, thermal oxidative stability, Themal conductivity.

    (4) Other properties: viscocity, water absorption, moisture permeability, adhesion, chemical resistance, surface finish. etc.

  • Process Validation Types

    Types of Process Validation: There are mainly four types of process validation. Following are some of the types of process validation so let us see all types one by one:

    Prospective process validation

    Retrospective process validation

    Concurrent process validation

    Revalidation

    Prospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the pre-planned protocol"

    Retrospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the analysis and review of the historical data"

  • Process Validation Types Revalidation

    Fourth type of process validation is Revalidation. It is performed to check the performance of the various process parameters, some of the points regarding revalidation are as follows. So let us have a look on revalidation:

    Any part of process or entire process parameters are validated in order to check the performance of the process parameters.

    To maintain the validated status of equipment, facilities, or manufacturing process , revalidation if often carried out.

  • Process Validation Types Concurrent validation

    Third type of process validation is concurrent validation which is also performed. Some of the points about concurrent validation are as follow , so let us see one by one:

    Concurrent validation is performed based on the data which is generated at the time of production.

    Validation carried out on the bases of the actual report generated during production.

    Critical process parameters and the end products are monitored during concurrent validation.

    The process parameter are checked for each and every ongoing batch.

  • Process Validation Types Retrospective validation

    Retrospective validation is the second type of process validation, some of the points regarding the retrospective validation are given below , so let us check it out one by one:

    Retrospective validation is the documented evidence in which the process validation is carried out based on the historical data.

    Validation of facilities, process, or processes are carried out based on the available historical data or reports.

    This type of approach is rarely used today.

  • Process Validation Types Prospective validation

    Types of Process validation:Out of four types prospective validation is one of them. Some points regarding prospective validation are as follows , so let us check it out one by one:

    In prospective validation process the validation is carried out based on the pre planned protocols.

    Prospective validation is carried out at new process at new manufacturing facility.

    Before pharmaceutical production at commercial level, prospective validation is carried out.

    During prospective validation the input resources are clearly defined and specified.

  • Types of chromatography

    There are various different types of chromatography which are used today in different industries and in day to day life.

    Before going into detail let us check it out the definition of the chromatography.

    The chromatogaphy is the separation of a component from of complex mixture of substance.

    Types of component, functional group or structure can be identified with the help of chromatography.

    List of some of the equipment are as follows:

    Gas chromatography

    Liquid chromatography

    Solid chromatography

    Liquid-liquid chromatography

  • How Recycling Saves Energy?

    When we manufacture new products from virgin materials, more energy is consumed. Other natural resources such as fossil fuels (Oil , Petroleum, Natural gas, Coal) are also used during manufacturing of products. But when we make products out of recycled materials we can reduce the use of energy sources. The steps in the process of manufacturing of recycled product is reduced which helps to save energy.

  • Process Validation Stages process design

    In Process Validation the first stage out of three stages is Process Design. Following are some of the points which are taken into consideration during process design. So let us check it out one by one:

    To design process follow good manufacturing practices.

    Uses scientific principles as well as scientific methods.

    Conduct the internal review , the document decisions and the justification of the controls.

    Find out critical quality attributes during process design.

    Critical material attributes are defined.

  • Process Validation Stages process qualification one

    In Process Validation the second stage that is process qualification , the design of the facilities and the qualification of the equipment and the qualification of the utilities are very important. Some of the points regarding design and qualification are as follows:

    During the qualification of th utilities and the equipment, the construction materials, the operating principle and the performance characteristics are very important.

  • How does the FAX Work ?

    Fax machine is used to send as well as receive documents, so there are two parts one is sending part and other is receiving part. 

    The sending part is just like a computer scanner which scans one line of a document at a time.

    Phone line is attached between sending part and the receiving part which transmits the information instantly to a fax machine.

    Within few minutes a copy of a document is received to a fax machine.

    Also read full Form of a fax machine

  • Process Validation Stages process design two

    In Process validation the first stage that is Process design stage have some points which are taken into account. Some of them which are taken into consideration are as follows:

    Process control should address variability such as:

    During the process design the control to reduce the input variation and the control to adjust for input variation are taken into account during manufacturing.

    Controls may also consist of about the equipment monitoring at significant processing point and also control on material analysis.

  • How is Coal Formed ?

    Since the 13th century coal is derived from the Old English term col, which means "mineral of fossilized carbon".

    Coal consists of high content of carbon and other elements like, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

    Coal is a naturally black sedimentary rock occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

    Anthracite coal is the solider form of coal, can be considered as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to high temperature and pressure.

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