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Types of Debentures

Check out Types of Debentures discussed below. So let us find out some information on types to know more about debentures. You might also like Advantages & Disadvantages of Debentures 

Debenture Types :

On basis of Security : Secured Mortgage debenture and Unsecured Naked debenture

On basis of Tenure : Redeemable debenture and Perpetual or Irredeemable debenture

On basis of Mode of Redemption : Convertible Debenture ( Fully convertible debenture and Partially convertible debenture) and Non convertible debenture

On basis of Coupon Rate : Zero coupon rate and specific rate

On basis of Registraton : Redeemable debenture and bearer debenture

On basis of Priority : First and Second

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Features of Debentures

Check out Features of Debentures discussed below. So let us find out some information on features to know more about debentures.

Debenture Features :

The rates which is to be paid or payable on debentures is fixed.

Debenture may be convertible

No voting rights on debenture, holder does not have right to vote in a meeting.

Instrument of loan

Debentures can be redeemed after a fixed period of time.

Debenture holders can be considered as creditors of the company carrying a fixed rate of interest.

Advantages and disadvantages of Debentures

Check out Advantages and Disadvantages of Debentures discussed below. So let us find out some information  to know more about it. The debentures which are generally issued by the corporations, are promises to pay specific amount of principal or money at a specified time or date over the particular course of the loan tenure, during which time interest is paid at a fixed rate on decided dates.

Advantages of Debentures :

Debentures is used to provide long terms funds to the company when needed.

What are the Types of Friction ?

What are the Types of Frictions ? Let us check it out some of the types of friction to learn more about friction. This type of frictional force is responsible for wear and tear of two bodies, Following are some of the types:

Types of Friction are:

  1. Static Friction
  2. Kinetic Friction
  3. Rolling Friction
  4. Fluid Friction

Static Force comes into action when a body is forced to move along a surface but the movement of the body does not starts. Example Pushing on a wall

Process Validation - Types

Process Validation points - Some types of process validation are as follows. So let us see types of the process validation one by one to know more about process validation.

Prospective process validation

Retrospective process validation

Concurrent process validation


Prospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the pre-planned protocol"

Retrospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the analysis and review of the historical data"

Types of chromatography

There are various different types of chromatography which are used today in different industries and in day to day life.

Before going into detail let us check it out the definition of the chromatography.

The chromatogaphy is the separation of a component from of complex mixture of substance.

Types of component, functional group or structure can be identified with the help of chromatography.

List of some of the equipment are as follows:

Gas chromatography

Liquid chromatography

Solid chromatography

Liquid-liquid chromatography

Types of Coal

Coal is a multifaceted resource which differs in composition even inside the same deposit. There are four different types or ranking based on various levels of coal with differences in energy output as a result of increased temperature,pressure & time

Lignite is a brownish-black coal with great moisture and ash content and the lowest heating value of the four types of coal. It is used for generating electricity.

Different Types of Ants

There are Different Types of Ants present on the Earth, So let us check out some of the  information on various kinds of Ants to know more about it. An Ant is one type of insect, Ants are small animals (Insects) and they are likely to be found in an anthill. Ants are usually social insects and usually lives in a complex social colony with one or more breeding queens, ants are very strong.

Different types of Multimedia

List of different types of multimedia are below. Also check some advantages and disadvantages to get more information on multimedia in detail.

  1. Online multimedia : A product that needs to communicate with distant users and sometimes distant resources (mobile services, websites etc.)
  2. Offline multimedia : A self contained product which does not communicate with anyting outside its immediate environment (Multimedia kiosks, DVD, CD)
  3. Hybrid multimedia : This type of multimedia has elements of both online and offline products such as computer games.

Process Validation Types Prospective validation

Types of Process validation:Out of four types prospective validation is one of them. Some points regarding prospective validation are as follows , so let us check it out one by one:

In prospective validation process the validation is carried out based on the pre planned protocols.

Prospective validation is carried out at new process at new manufacturing facility.

Before pharmaceutical production at commercial level, prospective validation is carried out.

During prospective validation the input resources are clearly defined and specified.

Process Validation Types Revalidation

Fourth type of process validation is Revalidation. It is performed to check the performance of the various process parameters, some of the points regarding revalidation are as follows. So let us have a look on revalidation:

Any part of process or entire process parameters are validated in order to check the performance of the process parameters.

To maintain the validated status of equipment, facilities, or manufacturing process , revalidation if often carried out.

Process Validation Types Retrospective validation

Retrospective validation is the second type of process validation, some of the points regarding the retrospective validation are given below , so let us check it out one by one:

Retrospective validation is the documented evidence in which the process validation is carried out based on the historical data.

Validation of facilities, process, or processes are carried out based on the available historical data or reports.

This type of approach is rarely used today.