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Incineration

Incineration is one of the waste management technique  and disposal method to treat waste materials. Combustion of waste in the presence of oxygen is carried out by thermal treatment process. The waste is then converted into water vapour, carbon dioxide and ash, with he help of incineration treatment the quantity of waste products or garbage can be reduced significantly.

There are many benefits, positives and pros of this incineration process but some drawbacks, cons, negative impacts and downside are equally present. Related Post on Advantages and Disadvantages of Recycling

Advantages of Incineration

  1. The volume and weight of the waste can be reduced significantly by incineration
  2. The treatment or the process of incinertion is quick.
  3. Incinertion method is suitable for almost all types of waste.
  4. Using incineration process, large quantity of waste can be treated.
  5. During incineration there is possibility or chances to recover metals for reusing and recycling. 
  6. One of the effective technique for waste disposal.
  7. Incineration is also used to treat organic waste or hazardous materials.
  8. Incineration also helps to reduce the amount of waste send to landfills.
  9. Incineration helps to save energy, reduces emission of greenhouse gas and prevents pollution.
  10. Little land is required and the waste could also be used as a fuel.

Disadvantages of Incinertion

  1. High construction cost or high investment is required.
  2. Incineration process produces ashes and other polluting residuals.
  3. Skilled staff, fuel and electricity is required to carry out incineration effectively.
  4. Sometimes it adds toxic gases or chemicals into the atmosphere.
  5. The incinerators used are very costly. The technology of incineration is expensive compared to landfill method.

Types of Incinerator

  1. Burn Pile
  2. Burn barrel
  3. Moving grate
  4. Fixed Grate
  5. Rotary-kiln
  6. Fluidized Bed
  7. Specialized incinertion
  8. Liquid Injection

 

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Benefits of Recycling

Recycling is a process of waste management in which waste materials of plastic, paper, metal, aluminium, glass etc., are collected and are used to make new products. Recycling helps to protect the environment and saves energy and resources. 

Plastic Recycling

Plastic Recycling: It is very important to recycle plastic to save consumption of energy and natural resources. Different types of plastic products or plastic materials such as plastic bags, plastic bottles are used daily which affects environment. There are various beneftis of recycling plastic along with some drawbacks of recycled plastic.

Metals Recycling

Recycling of metals such as copper, aluminium etc., is required to protect earth and environment. It also saves energy and natural resources. Along with benefits there are some drawbacks of recycling metals. 

How Recycling Saves Energy?

When we manufacture new products from virgin materials, more energy is consumed. Other natural resources such as fossil fuels (Oil , Petroleum, Natural gas, Coal) are also used during manufacturing of products. But when we make products out of recycled materials we can reduce the use of energy sources. The steps in the process of manufacturing of recycled product is reduced which helps to save energy.

What are environmental benefits of Recycling ?

There are several environmental benefits of recycling. Let us check it out some of the points of recycling to know more about recycling.

The process of recycling helps to reduces noxious waste in landfills. Recycling also helps to promote environments sustainability. By this entire process it is possible to diminish the demands of raw materials. Ecological degradation can also be prevented by the process of recycling, 

Process Validation stages continued process verification

Third stages in Process Validation is Continued Process Verification, Some points in process validation during continued process verification are as follows, So let us see one by one all the points:

The main goal of continued process verification in process validation is to ensure that the process remains in a state of control during manufacturing of commercial products.

The data is collected and evaluated in order to determine process variability.

Process Validation - Types

Process Validation points - Some types of process validation are as follows. So let us see types of the process validation one by one to know more about process validation.

Prospective process validation

Retrospective process validation

Concurrent process validation

Revalidation

Prospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the pre-planned protocol"

Retrospective process validation: "Documented evidence - Validation carried out based on the analysis and review of the historical data"

Process Validation Stages process qualification

During Process validation: The second stage is process qualification Some of the points which are discussed during process qualification are as follows , so let us check it out points one by one.:

The main aim of process qualification is to determine whether the process which is designed is capable of reproducible commercial manufacture or not.

Design of the utility and the qualification of the equipment are taken into account during process qualification.

Process performance qualification in this stage.

Processes involved in Recycling materials

There are mainly four types of process involved in recycling materials. So let us check it out each process take place during recycling of any materials or products

The first step is to collect recyclable materials such as paper, glass, aluminium, cans, plastic from communities. The recyclable materials are placed into separate bins and the bins also have the recyclable symbol on it. 

Process Validation Stages process qualification protocol

During Process Validation the protocol of process qualification is also prepared, following are some of the points which are included into protocol of process qualification, so let us check it out some points:

The manufacturing condition including processing limits, the operating parameters as well as the components used such as raw materials are included in protocol.

The sampling plan with complete details of the number of sampling points, frequency of sampling of each unit are to be mentioned in protocol.

Process Validation Stages process qualification two

In the Process Validation during second stage that is process qualification some more points are taken into account which are  discussed below. So let us see some points one by one:

During process performance qualification the actual facilities, utilities and equipment are checked whether they are qualified or not.

The personnel operating various equipment are trained or not is checked.

The  procedure which are performed are as per standard procedure is verified and checked.

Process Validation stages continued process verification one

About Process Validation, the third stage is continued process verification, Some more information about process validation in continued process verification are as follows:

The variation in the continued process verification can be detected by assessment of various documents.

By complaints of any defects.

By checking out of specification records or process parameters.

Checking deviation reports.

By observing variation in the process yield.

By checking batch records.

Checking records of incoming materials.

Process Validation Stages process qualification report excution

In Process Validation the execution of process qualification begins after the approval of the protocol, Following are some of the points regarding execution and preparation of report during process qualification.

Execution will start of begins after the approval of the protocol.

All points mentioned in the protocol are to be followed.

If the points mentioned in protocol is not followed then proper justification is required.

Follow the commercial manufacturing process and the routine procedures.

Process Validation Stages process design two

In Process validation the first stage that is Process design stage have some points which are taken into account. Some of them which are taken into consideration are as follows:

Process control should address variability such as:

During the process design the control to reduce the input variation and the control to adjust for input variation are taken into account during manufacturing.

Controls may also consist of about the equipment monitoring at significant processing point and also control on material analysis.